By Greg Geiger
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Extra info for Advances in Bioceramics and Porous Ceramics VI
Park, S. Jeong, H. Kim, and C. Cho, Surface properties and cell response of fluoridated hydroxyapatite/Ti02 coated on Ti substrate, Curr Appi Phys, 9: 528-33 (2009). B. Moonga and D. Dempster, Zinc is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastic bone résorption in vitro. J Bone Miner Res, 10:453-7(1995). A. Bigi, E. Foresti, M. Gondolfi, M. Gazzano, and N. Roveri, Inhibiting effect of zinc on hydroxyapatite crystallization. J Inorg Biochem, 58: 49-58 (1995). A. Söderberg, B. Sunzel, S. Holm, T. Elmros, G.
Here we show some main results of these ions from recent literatures. It is possible to explore the ionic substitutions as "ion drugs"  in order to reduce the usage of growth factors and drugs. 1. Strontium Strontium could increase bone strength and enhance the activity of osteoblast and decreases the activity of osteoclasts, which leads to more bone formation [20, 21]. It has been shown that strontium has positive effect on bone cells in vitro [21, 22], because Sr stimulates the replication of preosteoblast, which leads to an increase in the matrix synthesis .
The activation of Ti surface could improve the ion substituted apatite growth, including introducing OH groups, decreasing the water contact angle, and increasing surface energy . The morphologies of ion substituted apatite coatings are similar, which is flake-like, when the regular SBF has been used. If a modified SBF was used, the morphology of biomimetic ion substituted apatite coatings could be changed. For example, the Sr substituted apatite could be spherical, and the F substituted apatite can be needle-like.