Advances in Osteoarthritis - download pdf or read online

By Jill P. G. Urban, Robert J. Wilkins (auth.), Seisuke Tanaka M.D., Chiaki Hamanishi M.D. (eds.)

Basic learn on osteoarthritis has been conducted often from the his­ tological and biochemical points of the degenerating chondrocytes, collagen fibers, and matrix proteoglycans. Undue mechanical pressure has been proven to be the imperative consider the initiation of osteoarthritis. even though the precise procedure wherein mechanical tension ends up in the complete destruction of cartilage tissue is still uncertain, a number of new examine equipment have enabled us to achieve a deeper realizing of the method of degeneration. In October 1997, we prepared a world symposium titled "Ad­ vances in Osteoarthritis" in Kobe, with the most subject matters being up-to-date re­ seek, analysis, and therapy of osteoarthritis. The court cases of the symposium are offered the following in 5 sections: (1) Mechanical rigidity and reactions of chondrocytes, akin to intracellular ion alterations, adjustments within the cytoskeleton, intracellular messenger structures, unlock of fuel mediators, and alterations in electromechanical homes of cartilage; (2) useful prognosis of osteoarthritis by means of MR imaging, and utilizing calpain and collagenase III as new cartilage markers; (3) remedy with a promising uncomplicated washout approach and IL-1RA and MMP antagonists; (4) Cartilage fix through new grafting tech­ niques; and (5) difficulties following overall joint alternative. We in actual fact wish that the complicated wisdom supplied during this quantity of complaints should be beneficial to our readers.

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In this study, two separate experiments were done, that is, using PKC inhibitors and downregulation of the response. We found that a PKC inhibitor, H-7, reversed stress-suppressed aggrecan synthesis. Because depletion or downregulation of PKC by phorbol esters has been shown to result in a reduction in response to subsequent phorbol ester treatment [18], we also pretreated cells with a phorbol ester before cyclic stretch. Proteoglycan synthesis was not inhibited under these conditions. These results demonstrate the involvement of PKC in stressmediated inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis.

At least certain mRNAs have been shown to associate with cytoskeletal elements [57], and disruption of cytoskeleton affects the stability of mRNAs [58]. Amino acid incorporation into PG core proteins was not specifically measured, so it remains to be determined whether there was a significant alteration in the rate of core protein biosynthesis. 5 Hz for 90 min) stimulated PG synthesis in explants but inhibited it in chondrocyte monolayer cultures [44]. This clearly demonstrates that normal extracellular matrix modulates the response Proteoglycan Synthesis 31 of chondrocytes to hydrostatic pressure.

The loading creates hydrostatic pressure pulses that immediately spread into the underlying cartilage around the contact site. The hydrostatic pressure resulting from mechanical loading induces a flow of fluid through the matrix and creates streaming potentials and currents. Utilizing a pressure chamber, the effects of hydrostatic pressure can be investigated independently from other factors associated with mechanical loading. Increased hydrostatic pressure influences various cell types such as bonederived cells [32,33] and osteoblastoma cells [34].

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