By Thomas Sowell
This e-book strikes the dialogue of affirmative motion past the USA to different international locations that experience had related regulations, frequently for an extended time than american citizens have. It additionally strikes the dialogue past the theories, rules, and legislation which have been so usually debated to the particular empirical effects of affirmative motion within the usa and in India, Nigeria, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and different nations. either universal styles and nationwide modifications are tested. a lot of what emerges from a genuine exam of those rules flatly contradicts a lot of what was once anticipated and lots more and plenty of what has been claimed.
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Extra info for Affirmative Action Around the World
Here it is sufﬁcient to mention it among other examples of in- an international perspective ∞Ω tergroup polarization brought on by afﬁrmative action. It is clear that afﬁrmative action in Sri Lanka has not been a zerosum process. The material, political, economic, and social havoc created by that country’s long civil war has undoubtedly left all segments of the population worse off than they would have been in the absence of group preferences and the reactions to which those preferences led. TRENDS Even where there are adequate statistical data on the progress of groups that have been given preferential treatment—and often there are not—it remains a challenge to determine how much of that progress was due to preferential policies, rather than to other factors at work at the same time.
In Maharashtra, a paramilitary movement called Shiv Sena has specialized in intimidation and violence, directed against various ‘‘outsiders’’ who dominated the economy of Bombay (the capital of Maharashtra), as various other outsiders dominated the economy of Assam. This intimidation and violence has likewise been directed against political authorities and private businesses from whom preferential hiring of Maharashtrians was demanded. ’’∏∫ The background to the pressures for preferential policies in the city of Bombay (now renamed Mumbai) and in the surrounding state of Maharashtra was much the same as in Assam: Indigenous locals were simply no match for outsiders who were much preferred as employees and much more successful as entrepreneurs.
In the United States as well, those who resent group preferences may be some multiple of those who have in fact actually lost anything that they would have had in the absence of these preferences. In the 1978 landmark Supreme Court challenge to afﬁrmative action brought by Alan Bakke, a white student denied admission to a University of California medical school, neither side to the dispute could state with conﬁdence that ∞∫ an international perspective Bakke would or would not have been admitted in the absence of the afﬁrmative action policies which admitted minority students with lower academic qualiﬁcations than his.