By M. Riad El-Ghonemy
Affluence and Poverty within the heart East is an advent to the political financial system of the center East, concentrating on its such a lot salient gains - power poverty and severe inequality. El-Ghonemy analyses the criteria influencing the quarter, together with its certain ancient, non secular and cultural combine, in addition to its monetary foundations and kinds of corruption. for every issue he employs case-studies drawn from during the area, from Turkey to Sudan and Morocco to Iran. within the ultimate part El-Ghomeny discusses attainable recommendations to the demanding situations dealing with the sector, together with attainable makes use of of a peace dividend, and the position of democracy.
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During the 1920s their leaders, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and Mustafa Reza Shah respectively, replaced the native dress of turbans and flowing robes with Western styles. In 1924, Ataturk’s abolition of Islamic schools was followed by his prohibition of the wearing of the native headcover, the fez, which was to be replaced by a European-style hat. He went further in his rejection of the Turkish cultural identity, replacing the Islamic Hijra calendar by the Christian (Gregorian) calendar on 1 January.
The method was to make the entire economy, the legal system and administration function as a province of metropolitan France, after the collapse of the Ottoman regime. The flow of nearly 700,000 French emigrants was a rapid and practical solution to the rising unemployment and social unrest in France which 33 TH E RO O T S peaked in the 1850s. A massive wave of dispossession and confiscation of Algeria’s tribal lands dislocated tens of thousands of the farming and nomadic population, who were pushed to the low-rainfall south and the less fertile land.
Apart from the shared object of extending European power into the region and protecting their military interests in the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, each colonial power had its own purpose. The aims of the longestruling colonial power, the Islamic state of the Ottoman Empire, were religious and fiscal; the protection of Islam, and the extraction of exorbitant tax and rent from Arab provinces. The latter was realized through assigned agents (deys, janissaries, makhzan tribes and influential families) in exchange for the granting of vast areas of land and the exercise of absolute local power.