By Kjell Öberg, Gunnar Alm (auth.), Huub Schellekens (eds.)
This ebook, written by means of major authors within the box, is the 1st to accommodate all points of cytokine antibodies, from try out method and standardization to organic outcomes and capabilities. It encompasses antibodies triggered via cytokines used therapeutically and antiviral antibodies. to appreciate the biology, the consequences of cytokine antibodies in experimental animal types and sufferers also are mentioned. The booklet is meant for researchers of cytokine biology, pharmaceutical businesses constructing cytokines and cytokine antibodies as remedies, and clinicians attracted to modulating the immune method as therapy.
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Extra resources for Antibodies in Cytokines: The concerted action on the antigenicity of rDNA derived pharmaceuticals
Brucei brucei releases a molecule (trypanosome released lymphocyte triggering factor, TLTF) which triggers CDS+ T lymphocytes to produce this cytokine. The released IFN--y stimulates the growth of trypanosomes , and treatment with exogenous IFN--y antibodies can inhibit parasitic growth both in vivo and in vitro . We therefore stud- 35 140 b.... 'il. : 20 a 6h 24 h 3 day. 6 days 13 days 24 days Time after infection 140 b B .... 120 ~ 100 )( Q; U 01 10 c: 'u:::l "e'il. lys 6 doy. lys 24 days Time Fillure 6.
This suggests that when a specific cytokine exceeds a critical treshold level, ACAs may be compensatorily increased. Such a mechanism may explain why anti-IFN-,-autoantibodies are enhanced in the sera of patients suffering from different viral infections (17). These diseases are likely to be associated with enhanced IPN-, production. Notably high levels of anti-IFN-, autoantibodies have been found in the blood of patients infected with HIV or African trypanosomes (18, 19). This is of particular interest in view of the fact that retroviruses have been reported to promote IFN-, production by infected cells (20).
Abbreviations: ACA - anti-cytokine autoantibodies; MS - Multiple Sclerosis; CNS - central nervous system; GC - germinal centre; G-CSF - granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; GM-CSF - granulocyte-macrophage colonystimulating factor; TNF - tumor necrosis factor; IFN - interferon; IL - interleukin. Introduction Anti-cytokine autoantibodies (ACAs) are increasingly recognized as important biological effector molecules modulating immune responses in vivo. Over the past ten years, ACAs directed to interferons, several interleukins, hematopoietic growth factors and tumor necrosis factor have repeatedly been reported by several research groups.