By E.T. Turkdogan
Supplies engineers, learn scientists and graduate scholars a transparent realizing of the operation and keep an eye on of the pyrometallurgical approach. it's going to even be worthy for technical education classes given to metal plant engineers and plant operators
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Additional info for B0656 Fundamentals of steelmaking
13 The phase equilibrium relations in ternary systems are described more easily by drawing isothermal sections as in Fig. 16 for 1500°C. P compositions in equilibrium with the solid phase. In the triangular regions there are three phases: two solid phases in equilibrium with liquid of fixed composition for a given isotherm. 11 SURFACE TENSION (SURFACE ENERGY) The plane of separation of two phases is known as a surface or interface. For a given system at constant temperature and pressure, the increase in free energy per unit increase in the surface area, is the surface tension (surface energy) or interfacial tension a aG (J = ( aA )TP n.
In this system, the solidification of a melt of composition X occurs within the temperature range T1 and T2 and the compositions of liquid and solid solutions change along the L1L2liquidus and 5182 solidus curves respectively. At an intermediate temperature T', the ratio L'X'IX'S' gives the amount of solid solution 5' relative to the residual liquid of composition L'. 9 X B (0/0) 8 Simple binary phase diagram with complete liquid and solid solutions. 22 Fundamentals of Steelmaking When there is a greater positive departure from ideal behaviour in the solid solution than for the liquid, the phase diagrams are of the forms shown in Figs.
34) where C' and C" are the iron concentrations in the oxide at the ironwustite and wustite-gas (or magnetite) interfaces respectively. 35) Rate Phenomena 45 where C is the average iron content of wustite. 37) where Ais the parabolic rate constant, em- (scale) S-l If the measurement of the rate of oxidation is made by the thermogravimetric method, then the parabolic rate constant ~ would be in units of (gO)2cm-4s-1. From the compositions and densities of the oxides, with the relative thickness ratios of wustite:magnetite:haematite = 95:4:1, the values of kp and A are related as follows.