By Carlo M. Cipolla
During this vintage paintings Cipolla explores the gradual yet complicated means of improvement that reworked Europe from its quite susceptible place in advert a thousand into the hugely dynamic and strong society of 1700.
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Extra resources for Before the Industrial Revolution: European Society and Economy 1000-1700
Account must be taken of the fact that for the well-to-do, expenditure on food included food for the servants and that abundantly offered to many guests. When compared to total income rather than to consumption, expenditure on food by the rich and well-todo would thus represent a lower percentage than the 15 to 35 percent mentioned above. The same psychological force that induced the rich to overeat drove them to excessive display in their dress. Public authorities had to intervene with sumptuary laws to restrain wealthy citizens from overostentation and prevent them from squandering wealth on conspicuous clothing.
The income of the public power b. the “wants” of those in power and of the community which they control or represent c. the price structure Point (a) needs some comment. ” “Up to a certain point” only, because beyond that point fiscal pressure can dry up the sources of income; in other words, you cannot eat the cow and then hope for milk. ” As regards public debt, one should recall that this form of income or wealth transfer was unknown in either ancient Rome or ancient Greece. Public debt was an invention of the Italian city-states of the Middle Ages.
Moreover, the mass of the populace had no opportunity to save, while the rich, although indulging in conspicuous consumption, did. Not all income received is necessarily spent on consumer goods and services. Income not spent on such goods and services is naturally saved: this self-evident proposition derives from the definition of saving. Another self-evident proposition is that neither all individuals nor all societies save to the same extent. Saving is a function of a. psychological and sociocultural factors b.