By Bernard Lowry, Chris Taylor, Vincent Boulanger
In the summertime of 1940, the query Britain requested itself used to be no longer 'will Hitler invade?' yet 'when?' SEALION, the German invasion plan, provoked the development of pillboxes, anti-tank stop-lines and islands, coastal defences, heavy-gun emplacements and anti-aircraft batteries, in addition to the formation of the house safeguard and covert teams. New threats changed SEALION: radar detection structures have been multiplied through the Blitz years, as have been intelligence-gathering structures and listening posts. In 1944 and 1945, Britain used to be back confronted with a brand new and lethal threat,Hitler's 'Vengeance weapons'. This identify presents a concise overview of Britain's protecting platforms, and provides a bright photo of warfare at the domestic entrance.
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Extra info for British Home Defences 1940-45
This assumption applies with far greater force to the nuclear model than to the conventional weapons model. It is noteworthy that MAD thus far has apparently worked only because rational, state-based protagonists have been involved, originally the United States versus the USSR, and subsequently India versus Pakistan. Like other strategies before it, MAD may become redundant, in its case when irrational states or organisations acquire nuclear weapons, as they surely will. Before discussing the final two schools of strategic thought, guerilla warfare and terrorism, brief mention should be made of some of the terminology which grew out of nuclear strategy, to illustrate the use of language as politics.
For example, as far as manoeuvring or getting into position is concerned, practices such as deception, camouflage, surprise, timeliness, and so on, may all 15 16 MAKING SENSE OF WAR seem blindingly obvious, but that has not always been the case. Nor are those apparently self-evident practices invariably observed in the modern era, as demonstrated by the disastrous experience of the large Serbian land force that carelessly massed in open terrain during the war between the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and the former Republic of Yugoslavia in 1999, and was decimated by NATO strike aircraft.
With that caution in mind, the remainder of this chapter discusses the key concepts derived from the routinely expressed human desires to compel and to coerce. THE DECISIVE BATTLE The notion of the decisive or great battle provides the starting point for discussing compellence, first, because it represents a long-standing strategic conviction, and second, because it establishes a useful framework of associated warfighting maxims and practices within which ∗ To say that the use of the words ‘compellence’ and ‘coercion’ within the discipline of strategic studies has sometimes been opaque would be an understatement.