By Peter A. Hall, Bruno Palier Dr Pepper D. Culpepper
How do eu states comply with foreign markets? Why do French governments of either left and correct face a public self belief challenge? during this publication, prime specialists on France chart the dramatic alterations that experience taken position in its polity, economic system and society because the Nineteen Eighties and advance an research of social swap suitable to all democracies.
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Additional info for Changing France: The Politics that Markets Make
This system emerged in the post-war era from the junction of three imperatives: to produce a meritocratically selected elite to operate the bureaucracy that ran the dirigiste economy; to provide for the general education of French citizens; and to furnish the (largely unskilled) labor that was demanded by the modernizing French industry. The first imperative imposed a series of competitive exams that very successfully selected a Cartesian technocratic elite, whose high seminaries were the ENA and Polytechnique and whose Vatican was the French treasury (Suleiman 1978; Ziegler 1997).
There is also a more pronounced market logic to the processes whereby public resources are distributed. Regional governments often find themselves in competition with each other to attract industry, and they respond by providing subsidies and regulatory conditions more appealing to potential investors. As public utilities such as France Télécom were privatized, they moved away from the public service logic on which they once operated, toward market logics that put more emphasis on the profitability of their operations.
Thus, the question confronting economic actors and successive governments during the 1990s was the same: how should they get their information about the likely developments in the economy? By what new rules would they coordinate their expectations about economic change? The questions are central to the politics of economic change. Yet they are not always central to the way political scientists study economic change, because many political scientists take as axiomatic that institutional change must be ratified by public policy.