By Xiaoqun Xu
Xiaoqun Xu makes a compelling and unique contribution to the research of China's modernization with this examine of the increase institutions in Republican China, of their birthplace of Shanghai, and in their political and socio-cultural milieus. Xu addresses a relevant factor in China experiences, the connection among kingdom and society, and proposes an alternative choice to the Western-derived thought of civil society. This publication illuminates the multidimensional complexity of modernization and nationalism in twentieth-century China, and offers a concrete case for comparative experiences of professionalization and sophistication formation throughout cultures.
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Extra info for Chinese Professionals and the Republican State: The Rise of Professional Associations in Shanghai, 1912-1937 (Cambridge Modern China Series)
15 In a fundamental sense, therefore, commerce was the primary generator of Shanghai’s modernization and was the main force that gave rise to Chinese modern enterprises and modern business executives. While foreign commercial firms spawned compradors, the Chinese counterparts begot native entrepreneurs. From the compradors and native entrepreneurs evolved an urban bourgeoisie or capitalist class by the early decades of the twentieth century. Less visible and less appreciated, but equally important, was a new social stratum of professional people – managers, technicians, clerks, brokers, accountants – that grew with the economic transformation of Shanghai.
One may conceptualize the relationship between the Republican state and societal institutions as a symbiotic dynamics – an evolving process in which both the state and society were struggling to define themselves in relation to each other with overlapping and shifting boundaries. The story of Chinese professional associations in Shanghai was a meaningful part of the process. Following this introduction, the rest of this book is organized in three parts and closes with a conclusion. Part I (Professions and Professionals) explores how modernization spawned new occupations and professions, and lays the groundwork for examining the process of professionalization.
50 Railroad construction started in 1898 with the rebuilding of the 48. 281–83. 49. 236–38. 50. 242–44. 53 Maritime transportation remained crucial to Shanghai’s economy. In the mid-1920s twenty-five steamship lines served the port of Shanghai with regular services. Seven of these connected with ports in the United States, sixteen with ports in Europe, and two with the Philippines. More lines provided occasional services. 5 million tons of steamships entering and leaving, of which nearly 27 million tons (11,652 ships) were classified as ocean vessels.