Read e-book online Constraint Processing PDF

By Rina Dechter

Constraint pride is a straightforward yet strong instrument. Constraints establish the very unlikely and decrease the world of probabilities to successfully specialize in the prospective, making an allowance for a average declarative formula of what needs to be chuffed, with no expressing how. the sector of constraint reasoning has matured over the past 3 many years with contributions from a various neighborhood of researchers in synthetic intelligence, databases and programming languages, operations examine, administration technology, and utilized arithmetic. this present day, constraint difficulties are used to version cognitive initiatives in imaginative and prescient, language comprehension, default reasoning, analysis, scheduling, temporal and spatial reasoning. In Constraint Processing, Rina Dechter, synthesizes those contributions, with her personal major paintings, to supply the 1st entire exam of the speculation that underlies constraint processing algorithms. all through, she makes a speciality of basic instruments and rules, emphasizing the illustration and research of algorithms. ·Examines the fundamental functional points of every subject after which tackles extra complicated matters, together with present study demanding situations ·Builds the reader's realizing with definitions, examples, conception, algorithms and complexity research ·Synthesizes 3 a long time of researchers paintings on constraint processing in AI, databases and programming languages, operations learn, administration technological know-how, and utilized arithmetic

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A static method does not have a concept of the this reference. It is not possible to obtain the object lock of an object that does not exist. So how does synchronization of static methods work? To answer this question, we will introduce the concept of a class lock. Just as there is an object lock that can be obtained for each instance of a class (object), there is a lock that can be obtained for each class. We will refer to this as the class lock .

When is a thread active? At first glance, this seems to be a simple question. Using the isAlive() method, a thread is considered alive during the period between the call to the start() method and a short time period after the stop() method is called. We might consider a thread active if it is alive. However, if the definition of an active thread is a thread whose thread reference appears in the active count returned by the activeCount() method, we would have a different definition of active. A thread reference first appears in the thread array returned by the enumerate() method, and is counted by the activeCount() method, when the thread object is first constructed and not when the thread is started.

Page 30 Java Threads, 2nd edition Chapter 3. Synchronization Techniques In the previous chapter, we covered a lot of ground: we examined how to create and start threads, how to arrange for them to terminate, how to name them, how to monitor their life cycles, and so on. In the examples of that chapter, however, the threads that we examined were more or less independent: they did not need to share any data between them. In this chapter, we look at the issue of sharing data between threads. Sharing data between threads is often hampered due to what is known as a race condition between the threads attempting to access the same data more or less simultaneously.

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