Download e-book for iPad: Cost Estimating Manual for Pipelines and Marine Structures by John S.

By John S.

From the ebook - Preface:This handbook has been compiled to supply time frames, hard work crews and kit spreads to aid the estimator in capsulizing an estimate for the set up of cross-country pipelines, marshland pipelines, nearshore and surf sector pipelines, submerged pipelines, wharfs, jetties, dock amenities, single-point morring terminals, offshore drilling and creation systems and gear and appurtenances put in thereon. The time frames and exertions and kit spreads which seem all through this guide are the results of many time and strategy reports carried out less than assorted stipulations and at destinations through the international; those time frames and exertions and kit spreads replicate an entire, impartial view of all operations concerned. whilst one is engaged in compiling an estimate from any details supplied by way of others, as is the case with this handbook, he should still view it in an aim gentle, giving due attention to the character of the venture to hand and comparing all goods which could have an effect on the productiveness of work and all different components concerned.

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Extra resources for Cost Estimating Manual for Pipelines and Marine Structures (Estimator's Man-Hour Library)

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An EMCS can efficiently control the heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and other energy-consuming equipment in the building. It selects optimum equipment operating times and setpoints as a function of electrical demand, time, weather conditions, occupancy, and heating and cooling requirements. The basic control principles for building energy conservation are: • • • • Operate equipment only when needed Eliminate or minimize simultaneous heating and cooling Supply heating and cooling according to actual needs Supply heating and cooling from the most efficient source Building Envelope Energy is saved when the heat exchange between the building and the outside environment is reduced and/or solar and internal heat gains are controlled.

Energy Charge The standard billing unit for electricity is the kilowatt hour or kWh. It is a measure of the intensity or rate of energy use multiplied by the length of time it is used, (kW x hours = kWh). Therefore, the larger the power rating on your electrical equipment, and the longer you use it, the more kWh or energy you consume. Most all rate schedules include an energy charge per kWh for electricity consumption. The energy charge is based on the total number of units recorded over the billing period, usually about one month.

C. Table 2-11. Energy Use in Die Casting Plants ———————————————————————————————— Housekeeping Energy Percent Space Heating Air Conditioning Lighting Domestic Hot Water 24 2 2 2 TOTAL 30 Process Energy Melting Hearth Quiet Pool Molding Machines Air Compressors Other Processes 30 20 10 5 5 TOTAL 70 ———————————————————————————————— ———————————————————————————————— ———————————————————————————————— Percent ———————————————————————————————— ———————————————————————————————— ———————————————————————————————— Energy Accounting and Analysis 37 Table 2-12.

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