By Steven C. Hughes
This booklet presents a meticulous exam of the ideology, constitution, and capabilities of the papal police as they operated within the urban and province of Bologna within the interval prior to Italian harmony, and in doing so deals an incredible new interpretation of the Risorgimento. the writer argues that once the recovery the recent police quickly chanced on themselves incapable of dealing successfully with overwhelming difficulties of crime and public order. In permitting Bologna's elites to arm themselves in posse-style "citizen patrols" on events, the papal govt had opened the doorways to reform and, finally, revolution.
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Additional resources for Crime, Disorder, and the Risorgimento: The Politics of Policing in Bologna
71; Reinerman, Austria and the Papacy, vol. I, pp. 30-35. 19 Although Consalvi readily accepted the French model of centralized police administration, the public force was a different matter. 20 What exactly prompted this decision remains unclear, but one can speculate that Consalvi felt at home with the sbirri. 21 Moreover, in contrast to their weak position as police guards in the Legations, the sbirri had been fully reinstated, with no reservations, in the provinces of Lazio and Umbria by Cardinal Rivarola while Consalvi was negotiating at the Congress of Vienna.
233—241. , p. 242. Massimo Marcolin, " T h e Casa d'industria in Bologna during the Napoleonic Period: Public Relief and Subsistence Strategies," Melanges de VEcole Fran$aise de Rome, 1987, pp. 861—877. 20 CRIME, DISORDER, AND THE RISORGIMENTO source of influence and patronage, and supposedly making the entire system more equitable and efficient. 43 But the French reorganization went far beyond a simple reshuffling of offices. Welfare was no longer just about charity, rather it fit into a comprehensive vision of social control and improvement which stressed system over sentiment.
26, 1814, n o . 821. Antonio Quaquarelli, La crisi del potere temporale del papato nel Risorgimento, 1815-1820, Ban: 1940, p. 63; Gellio Cassi, // Cardinal Consalvi ed i primi anni della restaurazionepontificia (1815—i8ig), Milan: 1931, pp. 66-87. 24 CRIME, DISORDER, AND THE RISORGIMENTO by leaders unknown to the government; still in other locations the old satellizio [sbirri] has been reconstructed, and, finally, there are places where police guards or communal patrols have been assigned the responsibilities previously entrusted to the Gendarmeria.