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By S. S. Penner

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2ßg = 8 (hydrogen) + 2 ß 5 + ß ^ + ß 5 + ßg = 1 0 25 (oxygen) [l4] [15] DETONATION ß1 + A N D TWO-PHASE = 3 FLOW (carbon) [l6] Equilibrium Constants Κ 1 = ( < Γ Ϊ γ ) μ 1 / 2 - ^ ] The v a l u e s f o r e q u i l i b r i u m c o n s t a n t s , i n t e r n a l e n e r g y c o n t e n t a s a f u n c t i o n o f t e m p e r a t u r e , and t h e h e a t s o f r e a c t i o n were found i n t a b l e s . The n e t change i n i n t e r n a l energy f o r the combustion of a molecule as l a r g e as p r o pane comes o u t a s a s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n v e r y l a r g e n u m b e r s , s o t h e r e s u l t c a n n o t be t o o a c c u r a t e , e v e n i f done w i t h an e l e c t r o n i c computer* I n some c a s e s , i t seemed b e t t e r t o u s e t h e v a l u e s f o r t h e h e a t s o f f o r m a t i o n o f f r e e atoms and r a d i c a l s i n t h e e n e r g y b a l a n c e , r a t h e r than the h e a t s of d i s s o c i a t i o n as p r e v i o u s l y g i v e n i n the d i s s o c i a t i o n equations* T h i s method was s u g g e s t e d by G a y don and W o l f h a r d ( 1 7 ) , who a l s o c r i t i c i z e d t h e t e n d e n c y t o quote the v a r i o u s e q u i l i b r i u m c o n s t a n t s t o four or f i v e s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s , w h e r e a s t h e d a t a on which t h e s e c o n s t a n t s a r e b a s e d may be a c c u r a t e t o o n l y t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t figures* EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Propane-Oxygen With spark i g n i t i o n o n l y , r e p r o d u c i b l e d e t o n a t i o n s with s t o i c h i o m e t r i c m i x t u r e s were p o s s i b l e w i t h i n i t i a l p r e s - 26 [ 1 D E T O N A T I O N AND T W O - P H A S E FLOW s u r e s as l o w as 1 / 1 0 0 a t m , a l t h o u g h t h e p r e s s u r e r a t i o s a n d v e l o c i t i e s w e r e s o m e w h a t h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e o b t a i n e d at higher pressures.

B e c a u s e s p a r k i g n i t i o n of h y d r o g e n - a i r d e t o n a t i o n s b e l o w 1 / 2 atm w a s not p o s s i b l e , and b e c a u s e the p e a k p r e s s u r e s d e v e l o p e d w e r e c o n s i d e r e d u n s a f e w i t h an i n i t i a l p r e s s u r e 51 DETONATION AND TWO-PHASE FLOW of 1 # 0 atm, t e s t s w e r e l i m i t e d to a s m a l l p r e s s u r e r a n g e . As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , i g n i t i o n by s p a r k s or by w e a k s h o c k s p r o d u c e d s t r o n g d e t o n a t i o n s , w h e r e a s i g n i t i o n by strong shocks produced normal detonations.

P r e s s u r e Ratio, P 2/ p 1 exp. * theor. R i s e of Radiation at 3065 A . 00 9380 ... 1 ... 2 279,000 Table 4 Initial Pressure, in. gH abs VN VO Experimental Results of Hydrogen-Air Detonations Ignition Source Diaphragm Pressure Ratio P4/P1 Shock Pressure Velocity. fps M o p s R a t i 1 p / Rise of Radiation at 3065 A A g r* 9 > exp. theor. exp. theor. 00 Spark ... 7 218000 ^ O ο Fig. 1 Detonation, flame, and calibration spectra δ -π CO ΓΠ > "Ό Ο σ -Η > ζ ο ζ > Ο -Η Ό m Mixer ι —-. Jj) „ - Valves Fuel ι Rotameter ι ^ Oxygen Rotameter Pressure Reducer Ι Ι ' I ' I A Pressure Reducer H~h / ' I Fuel Supply 1 K- \\ Tr' \\ H P \\ Oxygon ^PP'y L 1| | Triggering Gap — - „ 37" I — Pressure Reducer____ =3©Valve j <[)Valve ll Vocuum Pw 1 "P I Τ S u ,v IH E, i mo PP Η Synchronizing ond Delay Circuits.

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