By Pradip Kar
An A-to-Z of doping together with its definition, its value, equipment of dimension, merits and drawbacks, houses and characteristics—and function in conjugated polymers
The versatility of polymer fabrics is increasing end result of the advent of electro-active habit into the features of a few of them. the main intriguing improvement during this zone is said to the invention of intrinsically conductive polymers or conjugated polymers, which come with such examples as polyacetylene, polyaniline, polypyrrole, and polythiophene in addition to their derivatives. "Synmet" or "synthetic steel" conjugated polymers, with their metal features, together with conductivity, are of precise curiosity to researchers. a space of unlimited power and alertness, conjugated polymers have sparked huge, immense curiosity, starting in 2000 while the Nobel Prize for the invention and improvement of electrically undertaking conjugated polymers used to be offered to 3 scientists: Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa.
Conjugated polymers have a mix of properties—both metal (conductivity) and polymeric; doping supplies the conjugated polymer's semiconducting a variety of conductivity, from insulating to low undertaking. The doping approach is a proven potent strategy for generating accomplishing polymers as semiconducting fabric, offering an alternative choice to inorganic semiconductors.
Doping in Conjugated Polymers is the 1st e-book devoted to the topic and provides a accomplished A-to-Z evaluation. It information doping interplay, dopant varieties, doping suggestions, and the effect of the dopant on purposes. It explains how the functionality of doped conjugated polymers is tremendously encouraged by way of the character of the dopants and their point of distribution in the polymer, and indicates how the electrochemical, mechanical, and optical houses of the doped conjugated polymers may be adapted through controlling the dimensions and mobility of the dopants counter ions.
The booklet additionally examines doping on the nanoscale, specifically, with carbon nanotubes.
The ebook will curiosity a large variety of researchers together with chemists, electrochemists, biochemists, experimental and theoretical physicists, digital and electric engineers, polymer and fabrics scientists. it will possibly even be utilized in either graduate and upper-level undergraduate classes on conjugated polymers and polymer technology.
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Extra info for Doping in Conjugated Polymers
Silver nanoparticle which attracts the π-electron cloud of the conjugated poly(m-aminophenol) . Probably due to the same reason, the polyaniline/silver nanoparticles composite, synthesized by the reduction of silver nitrate using different acid-doped polyaniline salt, shows good conductivity. From FTIR analysis it has been conﬁrmed that only the residual emeraldine units remain protonated by nitric acid, which is a reaction by-product. Therefore, the very high conductivity of the polyaniline/silver nanocomposite containing 24–27% silver nanoparticle with few acid-doped units can be explained by “induced doping,” although this is not considered by the author .
As for example, the n-type dopants are electron-donating substances like sodium naphthanilide, Na/K alloy, molten potassium, LiI, etc. 1). ). Although p-type doping for conjugated polymer is easily possible by very common oxidizing agents, strong reducing agents like alkali metal are required for the doping of conjugated polymer, as conjugated polymers are already electron rich due to having a π-conjugated system. So, there are a relatively fewer number of reports available on the n-type doped conjugated polymers like alkali-metal-doped poly(p-phenylene) and poly(p-phenylene vinylene), polythiophene derivatives, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene).
It is also helpful to evaluate the property of conjugated polymers doped with the same type of dopants. The property evaluation of conjugated polymers doped with the same type of dopants is very much necessary in developing the material for real use. Unfortunately the classiﬁcation of dopant has been given the least importance by the research community and is also very confusing. 1. Doping in conducting polymer can be distinctly classiﬁed as follows: 19 20 Doping in Conjugated Polymers 1. According to electron transfer a.