By Michael Levi, Petrus C. van Duyne
The phenomenon of psycho-active medicinal drugs, and our reactions to them, is among the such a lot interesting issues of the social background of mankind. beginning with an research of the 'policy of worry' within which legislations enforcement is 'haunted' by means of drug cash, medicinal drugs and cash deals an intensive reconsideration of this hugely contentious issue.In this exciting ebook, Petrus C. van Duyne and Michael Levi disclose an ever-unfolding sequence of difficulties: the proliferation of mind-influencing components the problems of overseas drug rules the interplay among markets and fiscal actors, with the ensuing gathering of massive quantities of crime-money. The social, cultural and monetary features of this crime-money are explored, along the continuing hazard it poses to the valid economic climate and the nation.
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Additional resources for Drugs and Money: Managing the Drug Trade and Crime Money in Europe (Organizational Crime)
The relationship between these interventions and market developments is ambiguous though. Was it law enforcement that was responsible for the decline of LSD consumption? Was the drug scare justified by the prevalence figures? In Chapter 6 we will elaborate the prevalence of these substances. Sufﬁce it to indicate that for the US, the high school drug-prevalence ﬁgures meandered, but in general declined. A thirty days prevalence rate of heroin of 0,2 per cent was observed in 1980, just at the height of the heroin scare.
Therefore we will discuss these drugs in a later section. The heroin market Though no drug has escaped the stigma of demonization, heroin (along with crack cocaine) is considered to be at the very top end of this rating. If the bohemian ‘artistic’ morphine or cocaine user may still have met some understanding – at least outside ofﬁcialdom – the heroin-addicted skinny junkie is considered an irredeemable loser, exploited by merciless and sinister ‘merchants of death’. Like most stereotypes, the ‘lost junkie’ image did not emerge from fantasy only.
10 It is an interesting 10 The quotation marks indicate that the professionalism of this market can in many cases be doubted. As described by Reuter (1983), Van Duyne et al. (1990) and Van Duyne (1995), the organizational level of underground markets is more characterized by cunning and good luck than sophistication. This does not exclude professionalism in some of the links of the trading chain between production and consumption. Unfolding of drug markets in Europe 29 hypothesis that this expansion was fanned by the relationship to a military struggle.