By Karel Driesen (auth.)
The implementation of object-oriented languages has been an energetic subject of analysis because the Nineteen Sixties while the 1st Simula compiler was once written. the subject obtained renewed curiosity within the early Eighties with the starting to be approval for object-oriented programming languages similar to c++ and Smalltalk, and received one other strengthen with the arrival of Java. Polymorphic calls are on the center of object-oriented languages, or even the 1st implementation of Simula-67 contained their vintage implementation through digital functionality tables. actually, digital functionality tables predate even Simula-for instance, Ivan Sutherland's Sketchpad drawing editor hired very comparable constructions in 1960. equally, through the Seventies and Eighties the implementers of Smalltalk platforms spent enormous efforts on imposing polymorphic demands this dynamically typed language the place digital functionality tables couldn't be used. Given this lengthy background of analysis into the implementation of polymorphic calls, and the quite mature status it accomplished over the years, why, one could ask, should still there be a brand new ebook during this box? the answer's uncomplicated. either software program and have replaced significantly in recent times, to the purpose the place many assumptions underlying the unique paintings during this box are not any longer actual. specifically, digital functionality tables aren't any longer enough to enforce polymorphic calls even for statically typed languages; for instance, Java's interface calls can't be applied this manner. in addition, contemporary processors are deeply pipelined and will execute directions out-of order, making it tough to foretell the execution time of even uncomplicated code sequences.
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Additional info for Efficient Polymorphic Calls
MySelector) error("Message Not Understood"); Figure 13. , color) throughout the system and will thus invoke the correct method for any receiver. To guard against incorrect dispatches, the prologue of the target method must verify the message selector, and thus the selector must be passed as an extra argument. Otherwise, an erroneous send (which should result in a "message not understood" error) could invoke a method with a different selector that shares the same color. For example, in Figure 13, message c sent to a E object would invoke b without that check.
I Code for secondary techniques (like LC for IC) is not counted since it only appears once and thus should be negligible. Table 4 shows the space cost computation for all techniques. In the formulas, the symbols D and C refer to data and code cost; D LC , for instance, refers to the data structure cost of LC in the same column. 0 Smalltalk system as an example. Surprisingly, the code space overhead dominates the overall space cost for six of the eight techniques. Most of that overhead consists of the per-call dispatch code sequence.
This saves time, since a used entry is never checked again, while in the simple algorithm it is checked once for each row that fits to its right. The algorithm outlined so far comprises the SIO algorithm in Table 6, which stands for "singly-linked freelist with index-ordered single-entry rows". We will explain the latter denotation later. 2. Therefore, smarter, faster allocation schemes can be adapted from memory management techniques that deal with variable sized blocks. The key trick is to test first for the largest consecutive block of a row, and to organize the freelist so that one can easily enumerate free blocks with a certain minimum size.