By Elmer H. Antonsen
This paintings is a realistic guidebook for college kids of German. command of grammatically right German because it is spoken and written, in addition to introducing them to equipment and instruments of linguistic research within the components of phonology and morphology. parts of German fills a niche in complicated undergraduate and graduate degrees of German language research through proposing extra complicated techniques of the language in a mild meant for useful use instead of theoretical discourse. not like books that deal with phonology in a cursory approach, this article delves into the issues of notice formation and the intricacies of inflection and derivation. It additionally emphasizes German's structural regularities and highlights how the doubtless unending sorts of German grammar mix in a logical model to shape a coherent entire. routines are incorporated all through to assist the scholar higher take in the principles for real-world language use. esoteric principles in the back of be aware inflection and declination, components of German offers scholars an in-depth examine the German language from the floor up. Its specific strategy makes this publication a great supplement to the paintings of much less particular grammar textbooks and reports.
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Extra info for Elements of German: Phonology and Morphology
Pappe = [phaph~] 'cardboard'. In some languages (including French and South German regional varieties), the voiceless stops are not aspirated. Try to pronounce Ger. e. as [papg]. It can be done by closing the glottis before pronouncing the bilabial stop. To test whether you are successful in avoiding the aspiration, tear off a small comer of a piece of paper and place it on the back of your clenched fist. Hold your fist up to your mouth so the bit of paper is directly in front of your lips. ) Pronounce Pappe without aspiration first.
TRILLS. Trills are produced by causing some speech organ (other than the vocal cords) to vi brate. Alveolar trill: [r], [r] (in German, syllabic =[n]) flap [r] The apex of the tongue is placed lightly against the alveolar ridge and the air is ejected forcefully against the apex causing it to vibrate. Scottish English makes use of this sound, and it can also be heard in the speech of some Americans after eel, as in three [epj], through [eruw]. Millions of German speakers use this type of r when a vowel follows or after a 'short' vowel, as in rot [ro:th] 'red',jahren [fo:r~n] 'to travel', Herr [her] 'lord, master', treu [tr~j] 'loyal'.
3 Vowels The third large class of phones are those that always form a syllable peak, the VOWELS (der Vokal, der Selbstlaut), which are therefore by definition SYLLABIC (silbenbildend, silbisch). , in Laokoon = Ger. :Jn] or Eng. [lej'okowon]. Note that in North German standard, vowels in succession are separated by a glottal stop (except before [g]), whereas in English, we introduce a very noticeable glide ([j] after spread vowels, [w] after rounded vowels). , Ger. Zeit = *[tsaIth], Eng. house = *[hous]) should be avoided, since these words clearly consist of single syllables and the second elements of the diphthongs are phonetically not vowels, but nonsyllabic glides (see below).