New PDF release: Endocrinology

By Dr. I. R. Hart, Dr. R. W. Newton (auth.), Dr. I. R. Hart, Dr. R. W. Newton (eds.)

Table 19. neighborhood structural results of endocrine ailments Endocrine indicators and symptoms are hardly ever particular. This truth renders the paintings of spotting an endocrine constitution affected characteristic disease in a sufferer extra frequently one in all suspecting instead of 'diagnosing' it. in contrast to such a lot different physique Hypothalamus complications Pituitary complications, visible disorder 'systems' the very nature of the endocrine approach Thyroid strain signs, dysphagia, guarantees that the results of disordered functionality in a goitre gland impact the physique as an entire and reason diffuse Gonads Testicular lumps, ovarian plenty signs and indicators. so much sufferers with a cardiac challenge current with a number of particular signs similar to chest soreness, palpitations and oedema. the matter then turns into considered one of resolving no matter if a cardiac challenge exists or now not and, if this is the case, what's the nature of the sickness method. historical past equally, so much sufferers with a gastro-enterological and neurological challenge will current with a particular current historical past symptom - diarrhoea, or tremor - so one can direct recognition to that organ system.

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__ .... , \ . . \ \ \ / \ \ \ \ \ \ ~~s~ LD-30. Carbohydrate metabolism. polymerization of the glucose units and the process is completed by maltase in the duodenum. Further enzymes break down the other naturally occurring disaccharides such as: Glucose is metabolized in all cells by the same system - glycolysis. This breaks the 6 carhon units down into 3 carbon molecules (LD-3I). Normally this produces pyruvic acid although, in a state of oxygen lack, it is reduced to lactic acid. Pyruvic acid is further metabolized to give the 2 carbon compound acetyl coenzyme-A which is then oxidized to carbon dioxide and water via the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

Development of the oocytes and granulosa cells into mature graafian follicles is controlled by gonadotrophins and by the 25th week of fetal life mature follicles are present. Once the trigger mechanism has been set off, no further stimulus is required for continuing maturation of newly formed follicles. Ovarian tissue has a complete complement of enzymes for the elaboration of progesterone and the active oestrogens from cholesterol. The various steps in this pathway are shown in LD-2S. This synthesis is controlled by the pituitary gonadotrophins LH and FSH.

LD-34. ~ . :~ ~ LD-33. / "'" /, /' , / : , ; "'i/JJ"~ "III. : x:/ ~ / \ , 1 / Triglycerides I I \ I I ENDOCRINOLOGY o I r-O-;~CH' Glycerol r-O-~~CH; CH2-0-C~CH3 from other sources. The main such source is protein in the muscles of the body (gluconeogenesis). 6 mm01l1 (60-120 mg/dl). Lower values would deprive the brain of its main fuel and, conversely, high concentrations of glucose cause an osmotic diuresis. Any plasma glucose level represents the balance between inflow of glucose and its uptake by the tissues.

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