By John A. Johnson, Alan Tomsett
This compilation is the main accomplished ancient selection of papers written on basic aluminum technology and know-how. it's a definitive reference within the box of aluminum creation and comparable mild metals applied sciences and includes a powerful mixture of fabrics technology and useful, utilized know-how. Written for fabrics scientists and engineers, metallurgists, mechanical engineers, aerospace and motor vehicle engineers, electric and electronics engineers, this quantity is a precious source for the worldwide aluminum and light-weight metals industries.Content:
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Extra resources for Essential Readings in Light Metals: Electrode Technology for Aluminum Production, Volume 4
82 g/cc. 77g/cc depending on how it is calcined. The differences in density between shaft calcined coke and rotary kiln coke are relatively small at low VM (9-10%) but increase as the green coke VM increases. 70 g/cc. Such low densities may also be driven by structural differences between cokes (degree of isotropy) as well as VM content. Figure 2: Shaft furnace cross-section and shaft outlets With this brief overview, the major fundamental differences between the two technologies are as follows: • There is a large volume of counter-current gas flowing inside a rotary kiln over the top of the coke bed.
Green coke is fed continuously in one end and calcined coke is discharged from the other end at 1200-1300°C. The coke bed loading in the kiln is low (7-10% of the cross-sectional area) as depicted in Figure 1. Heat is transferred to the coke bed predominantly by radiative and convective heat transfer from the counter-current gas stream and refractory lining. 40-50% of the VM is combusted inside the kiln and the rest is combusted in a pyrsocrubber upstream of the kiln. The VM combusted in the kiln provides most of the heat for calcination but natural gas, fuel oil and/or pure oxygen can be added to provide additional heat.
If two separate correlations are considered, above 1150°C the temperature estimate can be reduced to within ±24°C. The mean crystallite thickness is therefore clearly superior to kerosene density as a calcination control parameter. The statistical significance of the correlations could have been improved by carrying out calcinations at 1500°C, since however, the trend in KD and L is well established this was not felt to be justifiable. Conclusions Coker feedstock materials can be characterized by relatively simple tests such as density, refractivity, infrared spectrum, Chromatographie separation of structural components, and viscosity-gravity constant.