By K. Sangwal
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Extra resources for Etching of Crystals: Theory, Experiment, and Application
1978, Wilson e t a l . 1979, Heydenreich 1982), S E M CL (Chen e t a l . 1975, Velednitskaya e t a l . 1975, Brantley e t a l . 1975, Darby and Booker 1977, Werkhoven et al. 1977, Titchmarsh et al. 1977, Vink et al. 1978, Nakagawa et al. 1979, Chaudhri et al. 1980, M a e d a et al. 1981) and E L (Zschauer 1969, Kajimura et al. 1975, Iwamoto and Kasami 1976). 8] Decoration techniques 31 Fig. 11. One-to-one correspondence between (a) dislocation etch-pit distribution, (b) SEM CL images, and (c) SEM EBIC/SB images of the same region of a GaP layer (Werkhoven et al.
2. 1. 2] Τι 45 Temperature Τ T0 Fig. 2. Change in the free energy of vapour, melt or solution (phase I) and solid (phase II). 2) for nucleation from supersaturated vapour, supersaturated solution, and supercooled melt, respectively. Here a is the number of ions formed from one molecule, R is the gas constant and AHm is the enthalpy of melting. The behaviour of a newly forming crystalline lattice structure in a super saturated medium depends on its size. It can either grow or redissolve, but the process which it undergoes should result in a decrease in its free energy.
1974), W (Berlec 1962), G e (Batterman 1957), quartz (Tsizerling and Mironova 1963), SiC (Patel and Mathai 1972), B a T i 0 3 (Stadler 1963), MgO (Ghosh and Clarke 1961, Bowen and Clarke 1963, Sangwal and Sutaria 1976, Sutaria et al. 1977, Sangwal and Arora 1978, Sangwal and Patel 1978a) and InP (Tuck and Baker 1973). 2] Chemical etching 23 of dislocations. Pyramidal etch hillocks on M g O and Sn crystals are shown in figs. 5, respectively. Hillocks observed on crystal surfaces are either strictly crystallographic related to the crystal structure or noncrystallographic.