By Ulrich Krupp
This entire evaluate of the complete box of fatigue and fracture of steel fabrics covers either the theoretical history and a few of the most recent experimental suggestions. It presents a precis of the advanced interactions among fabric microstructure and cracks, classifying them with appreciate to the final harm strategy with a spotlight on microstructurally brief cracks and dynamic embrittlement. It moreover introduces new techniques for the numerical remedy of fatigue microcrack propagation and their implementation in fatigue-life prediction models.This complete evaluation of the full box of fatigue and fracture of steel fabrics covers either the theoretical heritage and the most recent experimental concepts. It offers a precis of the advanced interactions among fabric microstructure and cracks, classifying them with admire to the final harm approach. It in addition introduces new suggestions for the numerical remedy of fatigue microcrack propagation and their implementation in fatigue-life prediction types.
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Additional info for Fatigue Crack Propagation in Metals and Alloys
2 ). e. the increasing branches of hysteresis loops for various load levels must be coincident, the stress–strain hysteresis loops can be approximated. This relationship is shown in Fig. 8. Normally, analysis of cyclic-deformation behavior of materials by means of Wöhler diagrams and stress–strain hysteresis loops does not imply the mechanisms of crack initiation and crack propagation. There are specific experimental methods available to include fatigue-crack initiation and propagation into servicestrength analysis (cf.
Below the crack-opening stress intensity factor Kop the crack is closed and the respective residual range of the stress intensity factor ΔKres = ΔK – ΔKeff does not contribute to crack advance. 3). , crack propagation sets in as soon as the effective range of the stress intensity becomes ΔKeff > 0. 3). Fig. 21) The threshold value of the range of the stress intensity factor follows from Eq. 15 (after ) shows by a visualization of Eqs. 22) the influence of the stress ratio. In agreement with experimental observations an increase in the stress ratio leads to a decrease in the contribution of crack closure, and hence to a decrease in the threshold range of the stress intensity factor ΔKth.
45) Expressing the right-hand side of Eq. 46) By means of both the Irwin and the Dugdale–Barenblatt analyses, the so-called crack-tip-opening displacement (CTOD) as a measure of crack-tip blunting (see Figs. 24) can be determined . From the elastic crack-tip stress analysis one obtains the crack-tip displacement field . Substituting the plastic-zone size rp given by Eq. 48) where m ≈ 1 and E′ = E corresponds to plane stress and m ≈ 2 and E′ = E/(1 – v)2 to plane strain conditions. Applying the plastic-zone-size approaches to cyclic-loading conditions one has to take into account that loading to Kmax is followed by unloading by –ΔK.