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M O O R E a n d JASPER (1924) introduced a variable-throw crank a n d a connecting-rod mechanism, which were also incorporated in a machine by MATTHAES (1935) ; TEMPLIN (1933) used two variable eccentrics, and M O O R E a n d KROUSE (1934) used a cam-operated lever system. This last machine could b e operated a t a speed of 1000 rev/min, b u t in general a reduced speed of 100 to 200 rev/min was recommended to prevent vibration a n d to reduce undesirable inertia forces. If the reciprocating motion is applied directly to one end of the specimen, the spring being omitted, a constant-strain amplitude machine will result, provided the testing machine, including t h e dynamometer, is very stiff compared to the test pieceā€”a condition which is n o t always fulfilled.

T h e same principle of generating vibrations has been used by M E R E D I T H a n d PHELAN (1948) a n d also by LOMAS, W A R D , R A I T a n d COLBEGK (1956) who studied t h e speed effect o n several different materials. References: J E N K I N a n d LEHMAN (1929), K R O O N (1940), LOMAS, W A R D , R A I T a n d COLBEGK (1956), M E R E D I T H a n d P H E L A N (1948), QUINLAN (1946, 1947), ROBERTS a n d NORTHCLIFFE (1947), VON ZEERLEDERER (1930). 31 Load produced rotated about its curved axis, a simple a n d efficient method of producing constant strain amplitudes is obtained.

T h e rig consists of two balls driven at high speed on t h e inner surface of a cylinder race by a n air j e t from three nozzles. Ball loading results from centrifugal forces. Speed control a n d automatic failure shut-down systems are provided. T h e most common method of producing contact stresses is by rotating a pair of cylindrical disks which are pressed against each other. I n some machines one of the disks is driven ( W A Y , 1935 a n d BUCKINGHAM, 1944), whereas in other designs both are driven thus allowing a definite a m o u n t of slip a t the contact surface.

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