By Professor Alexander S. Mikhailov, Dr. Vera Calenbuhr (auth.)
This publication indicates how, by way of particularly basic types, we will achieve impressive insights into the habit of complicated platforms. it truly is dedicated to the dialogue of practical self-organization in huge populations of interacting energetic components. the prospective varieties of self-organization in such structures diversity from coherent collective motions within the actual coordinate house to the mutual synchronization of inner dynamics, the improvement of coherently working teams, the increase of hierarchical constructions, and the emergence of dynamical networks. Such tactics play an enormous function in organic and social phenomena. The authors have selected a sequence of versions from physics, biochemistry, biology, sociology and economics, and may systematically talk about their common houses. The publication addresses researchers and graduate scholars in various disciplines, corresponding to physics, chemistry, biology and the social sciences.
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Additional info for From Cells to Societies: Models of Complex Coherent Action
One can write F(r) = - \lU(r). Later in this section we analyze the behavior of self-moving particles in an axially symmetric attractive force field corresponding to a potential well. As a typical example, we consider a Gaussian well U(r) = -aexp (_r 2/2 p2) ofradius p and depth a that yields the force field F(r) = - f(r)e r , where e r is the unit radial vector and r (r22p2 ) f(r) = a- exp - - . 22) In classical mechanics, the motion of particles in potential fields is accompanied by the conservation of their energy E = ~ V 2 + U(r).
Tsin(}(t). (}. 20) 26 2. The Games of Life y , ,,~ , --________ ~ , ________________________ x Fig. 16. Illustration of the trail-following model. t is the interval between time steps. 21 ) Hence, the ants turn towards the higher concentration and the turning angle is proportional to the concentration gradient between the two antennae. Moreover, there is a maximal behavioral response (Jmax that will be reached nonlinearly. By adjusting the parameter n this response can be tuned from smooth behavior to threshold-like stiffness.
What is not addressed in this approach is how a certain behavioral pattern is formed. Another approach focusing on this latter question was developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s by Deneubourg and co-workers. The basic idea is that individuals communicate information of local conditions such as the presence of food, building material or an enemy to their nest mates. 4 Insect Societies 25 of such a signal, mostly chemical, triggers behavioral responses, including the emission of signals to other nest mates.