By Ivan T. Berend
The Soviet Union's dramatic cave in in 1989 was once a pivotal second within the complicated heritage of imperative and japanese Europe, and Ivan Berend right here bargains a magisterial new account of the dramatic transformation that culminated in ten former Soviet Bloc international locations becoming a member of the ecu Union. Taking the OPEC oil quandary of 1973 as his start line, he charts the sluggish unravelling of kingdom socialism in imperative and japanese Europe, its final cave in within the revolutions of 1989, and the industrial restructuring and lasting alterations in source of revenue, employment, welfare, schooling and social constitution which undefined. He will pay specific recognition to the the most important function of the ecu Union in addition to the social and financial hurdles that proceed to stand former Eastern-bloc international locations as they fight to meet up with their Western neighbours. it will be crucial interpreting for students and scholars of eu and monetary heritage, eu politics and economics.
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Additional info for From the Soviet Bloc to the European Union: The Economic and Social Transformation of Central and Eastern Europe since 1973
In addition, the lines the economic factors in the collapse of state socialism 25 were often out of order and it took hours to get a dial tone (Ehrlich and R´ev´esz, 1991: 83). As late as 1987, Moscow could not receive more than six long-distance calls simultaneously, while long-distance calls to other parts of the country had to go through Moscow (Mastanduno, 1992: 1). The computer age, heralded in 1974 with the appearance of the personal computer, did not arrive in Central and Eastern Europe.
In November of that year the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom) was established. Operations began on January 1, 1950, and all NATO member countries, plus West Germany, Canada, and later Portugal, Japan, Greece, and Turkey, became part of it. CoCom had weekly meetings with the participation of middle-level officials. The US State Department and US Department of Defense were always represented, while the other countries sent representatives from their ministries of commerce.
The relatively small or medium-sized countries were strongly dependent on foreign trade. In the mid-1970s, exports made up nearly half of the Hungarian GDP, and from one-fifth to one-quarter of the Polish, Yugoslav, and Romanian GDPs. The international decline of the old leading sectors, as elsewhere in the world, rendered some export products unmarketable, and brought sharply reduced prices for most of the others. The effect on Central and Eastern Europe was exaggerated because of the structural policy of the industrialization drive of the 1950s and ’60s.