By Wolfram Holand, George H. Beall
This authoritative publication examines some of the varieties of glass-ceramic fabrics, the equipment in their improvement, and the numerous purposes for glass-ceramics. It appears to be like at glass-ceramics as new fabrics with new houses and descriptions the increasing areas for making use of those impressive fabrics, in particular for biomedical reasons. presents a basic rationalization of the hot iteration of glass-ceramics in an easy-to-use structure. an ideal source for college students, scientists, medical professionals, and engineers or somebody drawn to average or clinical technological know-how and know-how.
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Extra info for Glass Ceramic Technology
And co of the solid 50 solutions of p-quartz between silica and eucryptite (LiAlSiO,) 0 (Nakagawa and Izumitani, 1972). Figure 1-8 shows the corresponding -50 coefficients of thermal expansion of these solid solutions (Petzoldt -100 1967). Note that this coefficient is 40 60 80 100 heavily negative near P-eucryptite, plateaus slightly negative from 50 to Si02(wt%) 80 wt% SiO,, approaches zero Figure 1-8 Coefficient of thermal expansion above 80 wt%, and then becomes of solid solutions of P-quartz crystallized from strongly positive.
It can be seen that the linear expansion coefficients cover a range from 12 x l O-’ K-l to 22 x 10-7 K-’ over the range of 0”-800°C. The cesium-stuffed cordierite gives the closest match to silicon, a point of some significance in electronic packaging. Another concern in glass-ceramic materials formed by surface crystallization of frits (particulate glass) is the stress that can develop between grains where anisotropic thermal expansion in different lattice directions is high. Clearly, this stress is a hnction of grain size as well as anisotropy in thermal expansion coefficient.
Cations are ordered in two different sites: the 1300 K ions reside in open hexagonal rings in 1200 ninefold coordination 1100 with oxygen, while the 1000 Na sites are distorted, oval rings with a coor900 dination of eight oxy800 gens around each Na 700 ion. O to hexagonal rings is mole fraction kalsilite thus 3:l (Fig. 1-18>. 2 GPa. nephelines containing (After Ferry and Blencoe, 1978). more than six Na ions per unit cell, the excess Na must be accommodated on the large alkali site. Since ions smaller than K do not achieve full contact with the surrounding channel oxygens, Na substitution must involve either the collapse of the hexagonal channels or an offcentering of Na toward the channel wall.