By Mohamed Rabie (auth.)
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Extra info for Global Economic and Cultural Transformation: The Making of History
The resulting reactions to this change range from denial to bewilderment, from political conservatism and religious fundamentalism to radical nationalism and extremism, from aggressiveness to retreat and retrenchment, from embracing the new values and lifestyles to cultural particularism, from universalism and globalism to tribalism, from tolerance to ethno-nationalism and racism. All of these reactions cause conﬂict and instigate change and, in the process, create new realities that transform perspectives and societies and make history more dynamic and irreversible.
Although tribal history would retain much of its relevance within its own circles for thousands of years to come, it lost under the state much of its pastureland and freedom and momentum. It was forced to adopt a circular movement within an increasingly smaller and more conﬁned physical, economic, and political space. Consequently, the tribal society, being less free and less able to provide for itself as before, became dependent on the agricultural society; nevertheless, it retained a capacity to disrupt the life of agricultural society and temporarily impede its development.
These years represented a transitional period during which traditional agricultural systems and institutions and ways of thinking were invalidated, new ones were developed, and quantitative and qualitative societal changes were introduced and legitimized. Karl Marx was one of the ﬁrst philosophers of history to argue that the underlying economic forces in society are responsible for cultural products such as religion and ideology. Max Weber, in contrast, argued that culture produces certain forms of economic behavior and work ethics that facilitate economic progress.