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Additional resources for Groupthink or Deadlock: When Do Leaders Learn from Their Advisors?
One of his most successful methods in dealing with individuals is to assume that he himself is lacking in detailed knowledge and liable to make an error and is seeking advice. ”48 Just because a leader is open or curious, of course, should not cause us to predict that he or she will learn. Learning naturally depends on many other things, including the need for haste or secrecy, the importance of the decision, and—the factor most directly under a leader’s control—the way advisors are used (or ignored).
71 44 Eisenhower and Reagan The National Security Council, in fact, was another important conduit of information to the president. ”73 To be sure, the NSC served more as a sounding board for foreign policy debates than as a high-level policy-making body. 74 But even when the president made a final policy decision in a meeting with a few of his close advisors, he ordinarily heard first from larger deliberative groups such as the Cabinet or the NSC. Andrew Goodpaster summarized the president’s access to advice as follows: “On the question of advisers, Eisenhower has a very large number.
Attorney General) Bill Rogers reported the Department’s readiness to seek antitrust indictments of leading executives in the electrical equipment industry, including some known personally to Eisenhower. ” Eisenhower asked. “Yes, Mr. ”78 On domestic matters, in particular, Eisenhower preferred to let others shoulder the burden of routine decisions. Such issues were not in the realm of his expertise, and the details of domestic policy were often managed by Adams or by Hagerty. Vice President Nixon also played an important role in domestic policymaking.