By Janine Garrison
Nouvelle histoire de l. a. France moderne:
1. Janine Garrisson, Royauté, Renaissance et Réforme (1483-1559)
2. Janine Garrisson, Guerre civile et Compromis (1559-1598)
3. Yves-Marie Bercé, l. a. Naissance dramatique de l’absolutisme (1598-1661)
4. François Lebrun, l. a. Puissance et los angeles guerre (1661-1715)
5. André Zysberg, los angeles Monarchie des Lumières (1715-1786)
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Extra resources for Guerre civile et compromis, 1559-1598 (Nouvelle histoire de la France moderne, Volume 2)
A. Coulon and S. Clémencet, 4 vols. (Paris, 1960–65), #3692 (26 September 1331). 52 See John F. Broderick, SJ, “The Sacred College of Cardinals: Size and Geographical Composition (1099–1986),” AHP 25 (1987), p. 21 n. 38. 51 CHAPTER TWO MCCXXV On Monday morning, 23 September 1325, the captain-general of Florence, Ramón de Cardona, led a weary Guelf army down a dusty Tuscan road to the town of Altopascio, some ﬁfteen kilometers to the southeast of Lucca. His ultimate objective was the city of Lucca and its powerful signore, Castruccio di Gerio Castracani degli Antelminell, arguably the most dangerous of the many enemies who had menaced Florence in the past two generations.
On the other hand, he trusted the French and Neapolitan crowns far more than he could ever trust the Empire, and he understood implicitly that the dynastic axis between the houses of France and Naples had come to constitute the single most powerful, dynamic and eﬀective political force in Western Christendom. , Barraclough, The Medieval Papacy, p. 145. See below, pp. 151–152. For Robert—a complex man regarding whom scholars have advanced a variety of diﬀerent opinions—see Romolo Caggese, Roberto d’Angiò e i suoi tempi, 2 vols.
In 1314 the great Tuscan Ghibelline Uguccione della Faggiuola resurrected the Ghibelline League, which shattered a Guelf coalition at Montecatini the following year. When Clement succumbed to stomach cancer in April 1314, the papacy was no closer to Rome than it had been at the time of his election. 10 In responding to the situation in Italy, Clement took recourse to what would become a cornerstone of Avignonese papal policy in Italy: the extensive use of representative agents, and especially powerful 9 Martin Thilo, Das Recht der Entscheidung über Krieg und Frieden im Streite Kaiser Heinrichs VII.