By D. Eaves
This instruction manual studies the chemistry, production equipment, homes and functions of the artificial polymer foams utilized in so much functions. additionally, a bankruptcy is integrated at the primary rules, which observe to all polymer foams. there's additionally a bankruptcy at the blowing brokers used to extend polymers and a bankruptcy is on microcellular foams - a comparatively new improvement the place purposes are nonetheless being explored. The chapters are written via specialists within the box.
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Additional info for Handbook of Polymer Foams
4 Inert Gases Inert gases especially carbon dioxide and nitrogen are among the most widely used blowing agents. This is partly because nitrogen is cheap, abundant and by far the most environmentally acceptable as it is simply borrowed from the atmosphere. The same is true for CO2 even though it is a greenhouse gas. This is because it can be deemed ‘greenhouse neutral’ whether produced as a by-product of ammonia manufacture or fermentation processes, or extracted from air or other natural resources.
For packaging electronic items this is generally in the range of 18-25 g/l. Note: it is commonplace in the EPS industry for density to be quoted as g/l rather than kg/m3 but the numbers involved are interchangeable. 1 Conversion of Bead to Product The conversion process is carried out in three stages: pre-expansion, maturing and final moulding. 2 Pre-expansion The raw material is heated (in special machines called pre-expanders or pre-foamers) with steam at temperatures between approximately 80 and 100 ºC.
Takada, R. Tamia, Y. Amamoto, A. Sekiya, N. Tsukida, H. 663. 25. J. 110. 26. R. A. 454. 27. E. Reedy and W. 12. 28. K. 6. 29. R. Pop-Iliev, G. B. 435. 30. H. 16. 31. S. Quinn, Plastics Additives & Compounding, 2001, 3, 5, 16. 35 Handbook of Polymer Foams 32. G. 2. 33. L. Heck, Proceedings of Retec on Polymer Additives: What’s New and Review, Ft. 277. 34. , G. Pritchard, Kluwer, London, UK, 1998. 35. R. Heinz, K. Breyer and W. 4. 36. L. Heck, Modern Plastics, 1999, 76, B-26. 37. G. 1 Introduction Expanded polystyrene (EPS) has rightly taken its place in modern society as an important material in, for example, insulation in construction applications and as a packaging material for a wide range of industrial appliances and foodstuffs.