By L. Delaey
Numerous themes on the topic of scorching Isostatic urgent are offered during this quantity. in addition to papers on extra basic points of HIPing, the papers are organised into 4 teams: metals and alloys, ceramics, HIP-engineering, and HIP-fundamentals. Castings, powder metallurgy, intermetallics, floor engineering and diffusion bounding are coated within the first team. The papers on ceramics supply certain realization to HIPing of structural and practical ceramics in addition to to ceramic composites. a few fascinating HIP-engineering ideas are offered on HIP apparatus and HIP-technology. The papers which debate HIP-fundamentals concentration round fabrics modelling and part modelling
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Additional resources for Hot Isostatic Pressing '93
10”2Pa·s, Uo=103oK. The following expression stress  : P = P (1-Θ) 2 L Lo where P Lo k - Boltzmann's is used For tool constant, steel  τ ηo = for the effective Laplace 7 is a local Laplace stress, P Lo = 0 . 1 MPa. 4. SAMPLE CALCULATIONS The expressions (9), (10), also taking into consideration (8), form the nonlinear set of the algebraic equations. The set is solved by the method of variable viscosity 50 coefficients. This method consists of the initial solving of the respective set of linear equations, corresponding to the linear-viscous properties of the solid phase (n=l in (8)).
The ‘kink’ on both curves shown in Fig. 5 ksi), corresponds to the point where the whole crosssection of the canister deforms plastically for the first time. 1 C on stitu tive M odel In the HIPing constitutive models, the total deformation rate D consists of an elastic, a plastic, a creep and a diffusional part. A rate-dependent (viscoplastic) version of the model of Fleck et al.  is used in the 34 calculations; the constitutive equations for this model are of the following form: ΘΦ = ΘΦ\ 1 ΘΦ ^ = έΡ~ ΝΡ· (3) The details of the viscoplastic model are discussed in  and will not be repeated here.
Element calculations (open symbols) are shown together with the predictions of the plane strain solution of the previous section. The results of the finite element solution agree well with the predictions of the analytical model. The results shown in Fig. 2 make it clear that the stress state in the powder is very close to being purely hydrostatic and that the longitudinal strain in the specimen is practically zero. It is interesting to note that the hydrostatic stress in the powder is about 10 ksi less than the applied external pressure pa.