By Paul Kerlinger
Unveils the mysteries of fowl migration. Ornithologist Paul Kerlinger writes in a fascinating variety for all poultry fanatics. "An first-class, well known, but authoritative explanation." --Library magazine
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Extra resources for How Birds Migrate
Richard Turner, Jack Connor, and Frank Moore. Funding for the writing phase of this book came from several sources. Members of New Jersey Audubon Society and Cape May Bird Observatory provided me with an income and the time to write. Without the generosity and continuing care of members, nonprofit organizations like NJAS and CMBO could not exist. I Page xii thank them and want them to know that those of us who work for these organizations really appreciate their contributions of funds and time.
Cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Title. 252'5dc20 95-7238 CIP Page v To Jane Page vii Contents Preface ix Acknowledgments xiii One The Reason Birds Migrate 1 Two How Scientists Study Migration 17 Three The Basics of Bird Flight 34 Four Up in the Air 53 Five The Travel Seasons 69 Six By Day or by Night? 85 Seven Barriers to Migration 95 Eight Migratory Rest Stops 116 Nine Flight Speed and Distance 131 Ten Finding the Way 144 Eleven How High Birds Fly 160 Twelve Flocking Behavior during Migration 173 Thirteen The Calls of Migrating Birds 192 Fourteen Flight Strategies 196 Fifteen Conservation of Migrating Birds 200 Recommended Resources 217 Index 225 Page ix Preface That a Swainson's Hawk, weighing about 2 pounds, migrates from its breeding site on the prairies of Saskatchewan to its wintering grounds in southern Argentina is amazing.
If by moving from place to place a bird can find more food, migration will evolve. Migration biologists often evaluate the potential for migration as a cost-benefit relationship. David Lack, a British ornithologist and evolutionary biologist, stated that migration will evolve only if the costs of migration are less than benefits. Cost and benefit are both measured in mortality and reproduction. If the cost of migration is great, mortality will be high and reproduction will be low. If the benefit of migration is great, mortality will be low and reproduction will be high.