By Robert A. Beeler

Providing a self-contained source for top undergraduate classes in combinatorics, this article emphasizes computation, challenge fixing, and facts process. specifically, the publication locations specified emphasis the primary of Inclusion and Exclusion and the Multiplication precept. To this finish, workout units are incorporated on the finish of each part, starting from easy computations (evaluate a formulation for a given set of values) to extra complicated proofs. The workouts are designed to check scholars' realizing of latest fabric, whereas reinforcing a operating mastery of the major innovations formerly built within the booklet. Intuitive descriptions for plenty of summary concepts are integrated. scholars usually fight with convinced themes, equivalent to producing services, and this intuitive method of the matter is useful of their realizing. while attainable, the booklet introduces options utilizing combinatorial tools (as against induction or algebra) to end up identities. scholars also are requested to turn out identities utilizing combinatorial equipment as a part of their routines. those equipment have numerous merits over induction or algebra.

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**Extra info for How to Count: An Introduction to Combinatorics and Its Applications**

**Example text**

Thus the number of different shopping trips is given by |A1 ||A2 ||A3 ||A4 ||A5 | = 4(3)(2)(3)(3) = 216 by the Multiplication Principle. ✷ Suppose that we want to make a string of n colored beads. Each bead may be one of m colors and we have unlimited beads of each color. As usual, we want to determine the number of visually distinct strings. Usually, we would only be interested in visually distinct strings, in other words, those that cannot be obtained from another by flipping the string. So, if we are using the colors 1, 2, and 3, then 1223 and 3221 would be considered the same string.

8 until Chap. 7. , An . , An are mutually disjoint sets, then: n | ∪ni=1 Ai | = |Ai |. i=1 Proof We proceed by induction on n. If n = 1, then the claim is obvious. ,An satisfy: n | ∪ni=1 Ai | = |Ai |. ,An , and An+1 be mutually disjoint sets. Thus, ∪ni=1 Ai and An+1 are disjoint sets. 6, we have that n | ∪n+1 i=1 Ai | = | ∪i=1 Ai | + |An+1 |. 30 2 Basic Counting Applying the inductive hypothesis yields n | ∪n+1 i=1 Ai | = | ∪i=1 Ai | + |An+1 | n n+1 |Ai | + |An+1 | = = i=1 |Ai |. i=1 Alternatively, if x ∈ Ai , then x ∈ / Aj for j = i.

Find the number of valid passwords. Solution As a first attempt at a solution, we might try to put the letters in order from left to right. It is easy to see we have 26 possibilities for the first letter, 25 for the second (anything but the first letter used), and so on. However, placing the last letter is more difficult, as we do not know how many vowels have been used. To find a solution, we begin with the most restrictive selection we have to make. Namely, we begin by selecting the last letter.