Interferons: A Primer - download pdf or read online

By Robert M. Friedman

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Single- or double-stranded RNA or DNA viruses all induce interferons; usually active virus is used, but heat- or UV-inactivated viruses under some conditions can induce high interferon titers. Some groups of viruses, however, tend to be good inducers of interferon in almost all situations tested; therefore, these are the ones that are generally TABLE VIII. Classes of Interferon Inducers I. Animal viruses, active or inactivated II. Nonviral inducers, natural products A. Bacteria or bacterial products B.

One significant improvement in polylC as an interferon inducer is attained by its aggregation with other molecules that appear to protect the RNA from nucleases. At least two of these have been advanced as interferon inducers with clinical potential: 30 INTERFERON INDUCERS polylC + DEAE-dextran, orpolyIOpoly-L-lysine, coprecipitated with carboxymethylcellulose. Both resist attack by nucleases; the latter combination molecule has been able to induce interferon production in species of monkeys in which there has been no reported interferon induction with polylC.

Superinduction refers to a paradoxical enhancement of interferon production in cells treated with metabolic inhibitors. This phenomenon is not restricted to interferon induction, as it has been reported for enzymes such as tyrosine amino transferase. The general methodology employed is indicated in Fig. 7. After cells were stimulated to produce interferon with polylC, but before interferon was made, a reversible inhibitor of protein synthesis such as cycloheximide was added to the medium during the first few hours of the incubation.

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