Download PDF by Y. Beigbeder: International Criminal Tribunals: Justice and Politics

By Y. Beigbeder

The booklet summarizes the paintings of foreign felony courts targeting the political demanding situations confronted by way of them. it's a useful, accomplished guide at the starting place and improvement of foreign felony justice and comprises the felony tribunals of Nuremberg, Tokyo, Yugoslavia, Rwanda, East Timor, Sierra Leone, Cambodia, Lebanon, Iraq.

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Extra info for International Criminal Tribunals: Justice and Politics

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On 31 August, each defendant made his final statement to the Court. On 1 September, the judges sat in camera to decide on their judgments. The judges read these on 30 September and 1 October 1946. 24 International Criminal Tribunals Twenty-four individual defendants were indicted, including political and military leaders, high Nazi officials. 6 One had committed suicide in his cell before the trial, and a senior industrialist was not tried on account of his senility. The Nazi Party, the Gestapo and the Security Service (SD), and the Protection Corps (SS) were declared criminal, with minor exceptions.

Twenty- eight defendants of ‘class A’ were selected from a list of 80 high-level officials alleged to have planned and directed the war. They were charged with ‘offences which included crimes against peace’. The mandate of the Tribunal covered acts committed between 1 January 192850 and 2 August 1945. The procedures were generally similar to those of Nuremberg except for the level of judicial support required to approve a sentence; the Nuremberg Charter required a majority of three out of four judges for all convictions and sentences (Article 4(c)), while the Tokyo Charter set a majority of judges present.

In its The Pioneers 33 judgment, the Tribunal excluded such crimes as the murder of political opponents, the persecution of the Jews and the persecution, repression and murder of civilians in Germany before the war in 1939 from its purpose within the meaning of the Charter. As of that date, the Tribunal then linked crimes against humanity with war crimes: War Crimes were committed on a vast scale, which were also Crimes against Humanity; and insofar as the inhumane acts charged in the Indictment, and after the beginning of the war, did not constitute War Crimes, they were committed in execution of, or in connection with, the aggressive war, and therefore constituted Crimes against Humanity.

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