By James R. Dvorak
Offers insights into the translation of metallographers' and metallurgists' effects and an research of the view as visible via an optical microscope. Discusses the strengths and weaknesses of varied metallographics thoughts corresponding to gentle optics, electron optics, and microbeam spectroscopy.
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Extra info for Interpretation of Metallographic Structures
Frequently, however, at some elevated temperature, fragmentation of the compound envelopes can proceed without propa gation of cracks through the whole structure. , extrusion. As illustrated in Fig. 24, the compound networks, during and as a result of hot working, trans pose to nodular distributions which are far less restrictive to the deformations of the individual ductile-phase grains. Thus by hot working, a cast structure brittle at room temperature may be induced to act in a ductile fashion.
This is M u n t z m e t a l — 6 0 % C u , 4 0 % Ζη·. M i c r o g r a p h ( a ) is t y p i c a l of t h e W i d m a n s t a t t e n a r r a n g e m e n t of a p l a t e s in a β m a t r i x p r o d u c e d b y cooling f r o m T h e s p e c i m e n in m i c r o g r a p h the β phase field. w h i l e it w a s cooling t h r o u g h t h e p a t t e r n is r e p l a c e d by what (b) ( a -f β ) phase is t h e w a s hot w o r k e d a t least 5 0 % field. The normal closest a p p r o x i m a t i o n of precipitation an e q u i a x e d grain s t r u c t u r e w h i c h a t w o - p h a s e s p e c i m e n c a n assume.
T h e g e n e r a t i o n of local zones of h a r d m a r t e n s i t e in a steel, w h o s e n o m i n a l c a r b o n a n d a l l o y contents w o u l d d i c t a t e o t h e r w i s e , c a n l e a d t o all k i n d s of p r o d u c t i o n a n d o p e r a t i o n a l f a i l u r e s . E t c h a n t : 2% H N 0 , 98% e t h y l alcohol. X 1 8 0 . 3 M e t a l l o g r a p h y of H o t Working 37 F I G . 1 . 2 3 . W h e n an a l l o y is h o t w o r k e d at t h e s a m e t i m e as. a p h a s e is p r e c i p i tating, the normal distribution pattern and particle morphology are radically c h a n g e d .