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Extra info for Meteorology for Seafarers
The significant difference between the values of the diurnal range of land and sea surface temperatures may be attributed to a number of factors: I. Specific heat capacity. The energy required to raise the unit mass of a substance through I K is termed specific heat capacity. 18J g-I K -I, whereas for any soil mass it is substantially smaller, the absolute value being dependent upon the soil type and its liquid water content. 2. Transparency to solar radiation. The depth to which solar radiation penetrates a water mass depends on the amount of solid material contained within it.
However, this data is liable to be inaccurate, partly due to the depth of the intake below the surface, and partly through the heating of the water sample as soon as it is inside the vessel. 10 TEMPERATURE 11 Fig. 1 Muinc Screen. Distant reading thermometers have been introduced for voluntary observing purposes. An electrical resistance unit is sited on the inside of the hull about I m below the waterline, where the hull temperature is similar to that of the sea. The sensing unit is connected to a digital readout located on the bridge, from which the observer can obtain a reading whenever required.
C. Absorption in the troposphere by gases, water vapour and dust particles. D. Reflection to space by clouds, there being no change in the wavelength of the radiation. E. Scattering of radiation to space. + lOO -3 -14 -24 -6 (Note: Scattering depends mainly on the ratio of the size of the scattering particle to the wavelength of the radiation incident upon it. ) Amount of solar radiation incident upon the surface of the earth 53 Of the 53 units, 6 (F) are reflected by the surface and 47 (G) are absorbed (Fig.