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Extra info for Microbial Endocrinology: Interkingdom Signaling in Infectious Disease and Health
Seed. In various plants, serotonin conjugated to form phenolic compounds via thioester linkages during the synthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid amides, including p-coumaroylserotonin, feruloylserotonin, and p-coumaroyltyramine (Ly et al. 2008). It should be noted that serotonin in animals (such as rats) may exist in complexes with heparin that prevents the aggregation of thrombocytes (Kondashevskaya et al. 1996). 1) and, subsequently, in many bacterial and plant cells by Werle and coauthors (1948, 1949).
2005, 2006a, b; Brenner et al. 2006; Ramakrishna et al. 2011). Any organism may release neurotransmitters, and due to these secretions the “living environment” inﬂuences every other inhabitant of biocenosis, determining relationships between organisms such as microorganism–microorganism, microorganism–plant, microorganism–animal, plant–animal, plant–plant, and animal–animal. The universal character of neurotransmitters, as well as their occurrence and similarity of functions at the cellular level, should compel the scientiﬁc community to rename “neurotransmitters” to “biomediators” in order to better allow the term’s application to any living cell—not just those organisms that possess nervous systems (Roshchina 1991, 2001a, 2010).
Roshchina amounts of dopamine are usually secreted by cells of infusoria Tetrahymena pyriformis into their growth medium (Gundersen and Thompson 1985). This release of dopamine is especially important during infection, when the animal or plant accumulates some of the neurotransmitters, while pathogens release neurotransmitters (Romanovskaya and Popenenkova 1971). On north-eastern Paciﬁc coasts, the alga Ulvaria obscura produces large amounts of dopamine (van Alstyne et al. 2006). This organism, dominant in subtidal “green tide” blooms due to this anti-herbivore defense, can be harmful to marine communities, ﬁsheries, and aquaculture facilities because the alga presence is the cause of reduced feeding by echinoderms, molluscs, and arthropods.