Download PDF by S. Engell, G. Frehse, E. Schnieder: Modelling, Analysis and Design of Hybrid Systems

By S. Engell, G. Frehse, E. Schnieder

In 1995, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), the biggest public study investment association in Germany, determined to release a concern software (Schw- punktprogramm in German) calledKondisk– Dynamics and regulate of platforms with combined non-stop and Discrete Dynamics. any such precedence application is mostly backed for 6 years and helps approximately twenty scientists at a time, in engineering andcomputersciencemostlyyoungresearchersworkingforadoctoraldegree. there's a every year festival throughout all disciplines of arts and sciences for the investment of such courses, and the crowd of proposers was once the chuffed winner of a fit in that 12 months. this system begun in 1996 after an open demand proposals; the winning tasks have been offered and re-evaluated periodically, and new tasks will be submitted concurrently. in the course of the process the concentrated examine software, 25 diversified tasks have been funded in 19 partaking college institutes, the various tasks have been collaborative efforts of 2 teams with various backgrounds, regularly one from engineering and one from machine technological know-how. there have been major motivations for establishingKondisk. The rst was once the truth that technical structures these days are composed of actual elements with (mostly) non-stop dynamics and automated keep an eye on platforms the place the response to discrete occasions performs a huge position, applied in Programmable good judgment Contr- lers (PLCs), disbursed regulate platforms (DCSs) or real-time desktops.

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There is a large body of literature on testing labeled transition systems, see (Sch¨atz and Pretschner, 2002) for an overview. , 2000). The main difference with our approach is that we do not explicitly construct labeled transition systems but rather work on composed finite state machines that describe the behavior, which enables us (1) to compute with sets of values by means of symbolic execution, and (2) to easily incorporate heuristic search strategies. 2 Model Based Development Even though the notion of model based development was coined a decade or so ago, the search for clear definitions of this concept results in a hard time.

Once a reel is totally wound up it has to exit the system. This is achieved by a table that brings a new (empty) reel in position after the full one has been put on a belt. This is a complex, mostly discrete process that involves moving the table, fixing the new wheel on the motor’s axis, cutting the wire, and making the new reel turn. There are two main conveyor belts involved in the system, one for empty, and one for wound up reels. This part of the system is omitted here for brevity’s sake. In addition to hydraulic aggregates that guarantee the fixed position of a (turning) reel on the axis of the associated motor – the motor that interacts with the dancer via a controller for the turning speed – the last main component of this system is the PLC part with roughly 180 I/O ports.

4a is a basic continuous element whose HDN model in Fig. 4b has one input and one output place. The firing speed function v = 1/T1 (KP · u − y) is assigned to the transition T 1 (with T1 = 1, KP = 10). Figure 4c shows the step response of the system. Kp U(p) (a) Y(p) 1 (KP T1 y(t) ˙ = 1 pT1 y (c) (b) T1 P1 · u(t) − y(t)) 10 P2 u 7,5 y 5 10*u-y 2,5 t 0 20 40 60 80 Fig. 4. First order system (a) first order system given in terms of time constants (b) HDN model of the system (c) simulation results Oscillator (Second Order System).

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