By P. Wilding
The favelas (slums) of Rio de Janeiro offer an awesome case research on account that they're well known for prime degrees of police and gang violence leading to excessive dying premiums between younger black males, inflicting either outrage and worry. This e-book foregrounds women's studies and the way diverse different types of violence overlap and strengthen each other.
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Extra resources for Negotiating Boundaries: Gender, Violence and Transformation in Brazil
Although slum upgrading projects have increased access to ‘sanitation, crèches, schools, health centres, squares and almost universal electricity provision’, marked differences still exist (Souza e Silva 2003:2). A 23 P. Wilding, Negotiating Boundaries © Polly Wilding 2012 24 Negotiating Boundaries common complaint from residents is therefore not the complete lack of services, but rather their poor quality and lack of human and material resources (Perlman 2005:13–14). The concepts, stereotypes, stigma and meaning grafted on to the physical spaces of favelas are nevertheless experienced differently by different favelados, according to their social identity.
On the one hand, they are good, but on the other, they are dangerous because many innocent people die. Marilia, aged 13 Clearly, recognition of the negative aspects of gang control does not preclude recognition of their efforts to get the community on side. ‘Respecting community residents and treating them well is one way of guaranteeing the community’s protection,’ states Dowdney (2003:56; also Venkatesh 1997). However, to suggest that the primary goal of gangs is to preserve stability through a combination of the provision of social goods and maintaining law and order is misleading.
It found that while the poor, the young, and the black are stopped more frequently by the police,4 youth was the most germane characteristic (Ramos and Musumeci 2004). Sylvia Ramos told me that ethnicity and age interact to give rise to the form of abuse young men are subjected to. She gave the example of a young white middle-class car driver entering a favela, who, as a suspected drugs buyer, may be stopped for a bribe, while a young black man is treated as a suspected drugs dealer and may therefore be at risk of physical abuse by the police.