Download e-book for kindle: Physical properties of thin metal films by G P Zhigal'skii; Brian K Jones

By G P Zhigal'skii; Brian K Jones

content material: Conduction in Discontinuous movies. Size-effects in skinny steel movies. inner Mechanical Stresses and Voids in skinny steel movies. electric Noise in skinny motion pictures and Thin-Film constructions. Non-linear Conduction and Non-Equilibrium Noise in skinny motion pictures. Degradation Mechanisms in skinny steel Films.

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An electric field, E, acts normal to the surface of the metal. For an electron at the surface of the metal a force F ¼ eE acts along the x-axis and tends to pull the electron out of the metal. 4. 11 by the straight line. The curve Wr shows the potential energy of an electron in the absence of an external field. 11. It can be seen that the external accelerating field operates on the potential barrier in two ways. First, it reduces the height of the potential barrier by an amount Á and that reduces the work function to 0 À Á .

Let us consider the physical meaning of the lifetime. Let the surface of a dielectric substrate be bombarded with metal atoms. As each is adsorbed on the substrate it deposits its excess kinetic energy and the atom participates in thermal motion on its surface with the other atoms. The adsorbed atom has some finite time of stay on the substrate surface. P. K. Jones 22 Factors that determine the properties of films (clusters). If the adsorbed atom does not participate in the formation of clusters, it re-evaporates because it may receive sufficient energy from its thermal motion to come off the substrate.

P. K. Jones 30 Factors that determine the properties of films at a lower annealing temperature than the recrystallisation. e. the lowest temperature at which recrystallisation can be observed, is usually called low-temperature annealing. For Tann ! Trec recrystallisation takes place strongly. Such annealing is called high-temperature annealing. 16]: Trec % 0:4 Tmel ð1:18Þ where Tmel is the melting temperature. 18 and can even occur at room temperature. However noticeable recrystallisation in films occurs at high temperatures.

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