By Phebe Cramer PhD
Integrating thought, study, and useful functions, this well timed ebook presents a entire exam of safety mechanisms and their function in either common improvement and psychopathology. the writer describes how youngsters and adults mobilize particular sorts of defenses to take care of their mental equilibrium and look after vainness, relatively in events of trauma or tension. Many lucid examples illustrate what those mechanisms seem like in lifestyle; the effect of age, gender, and character changes; what occurs while defenses are used maladaptively; and the way they're laid low with psychotherapy. demanding situations in review are thought of, and empirically supported tools and techniques are mentioned extensive.
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Extra resources for Protecting the Self: Defense Mechanisms in Action
2, the results from his independent study virtually replicated my earlier results. 1. Defense use in four age groups. From Cramer (1991b); reprinted with permission from the Journal of Personality. of denial after the early years, the greater use of projection during later childhood and adolescence, and the continuing increase in the use of identification until it becomes predominant in late adolescence. Not only was the pattern of results the same, but the relative magnitude of defense use across the two samples was very similar.
By later adolescence (age 16), identification had become predominant, being used more frequently than either projection or denial (Cramer, 1987). A critical test of theory and research is its replication by an independent researcher from a different laboratory. , 1998). The youngest children in this group were slightly older (7 years) than the youngest group in my study (age 5); Porcerelli also included college students in the investigation. 2, the results from his independent study virtually replicated my earlier results.
But how do we know that we are really assessing defense mechanisms? In other words, how do we know that this defense coding system is valid? Theory provides us with several postulates which, if supported by empirical research, give evidence of construct validity. First, once the function of a defense becomes conscious, it should be given up. Second, the use of defense mechanisms should increase under conditions of stress. Third, the use of defense mechanisms should protect the person from psychological upset.