Read e-book online Revolutionary France: 1788-1880 (Short Oxford History of PDF

During this quantity, one of many first to examine 'Revolutionary France' as an entire, a crew of prime foreign historians discover the foremost problems with politics and society, tradition, economics, and out of the country growth in this very important interval of French heritage.

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In  some grouped themselves in the charbonnerie, an offshoot of the Italian carbonari, a secret society which revered the principles of  and adopted the symbols and ideas of radical freemasonry. A number of small conspiracies were uncovered, all centred on various army units. Government repression and the decision to occupy the underemployed army to defend the conservative Spanish royal claimant against his liberal rival in  snuffed out this form of opposition. Political conflict thus focused on parliament.

In  the link between Church and state was formally severed and people were free to the french revolution and napoleon | 27 worship as they wished. There was an immediate rush to reopen churches and recall priests, but the halt to persecution was only temporary. Refractory clergy, who had rejected the earlier reform of the Church, were especially resented and came under renewed legislative pressure in the wake of the Fructidor purge. Yet even constitutional clergy, led by the indomitable Abbé Grégoire, who were keen to work with the Republic, found a relationship difficult to establish.

As Alexis de Tocqueville argued long ago, the revolutionaries effectively completed rather than overturned the state-building begun under the Old Regime. Yet the ideological the french revolution and napoleon | 35 legacy of the Revolution could not be conjured away by means of such continuity. Before long the Hundred Days of  would not only rescue the tarnished reputation of a triumphantly returning Napoleon, but also reveal the persistence of apparently exorcized revolutionary demons. This extraordinary event demonstrated just how far the memory and mentality of the Revolution had seared into the French consciousness.

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