By Hiroyuki Fujiwara
Ellipsometry is a strong device used for the characterization of skinny movies and multi-layer semiconductor constructions. This ebook bargains with primary ideas and functions of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). starting with an summary of SE applied sciences the textual content strikes directly to concentrate on the information research of effects acquired from SE, primary information analyses, ideas and actual backgrounds and many of the fabrics utilized in varied fields from LSI to biotechnology are defined. the ultimate bankruptcy describes the most recent advancements of real-time tracking and method keep watch over that have attracted major recognition in quite a few medical and business fields.
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Additional info for Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications
If we set s = c in Eq. 8), the relation c = is obtained. Thus, by substituting = c/ into Eq. 27 Here, the unit of is m. 2 summarizes conversion of various units used in optics. In theoretical expressions, is frequently used, while ellipsometry spectra in the ultraviolet/visible region are generally expressed using En or . In the infrared region, the wave number W defined by W = 1/ is mainly used. 1 Physical constants used in optics fields Speed of light Planck’s constant Free-space permittivity Electron chargea Free-electron mass a c h = h/2 0 e m0 2 99792 × 108 m/s 6 62607 × 10−34 J · s 1 05457 × 10−34 J · s 8 85419 × 10−12 F/m 1 60218 × 10−19 C 9 10938 × 10−31 kg 1 electron volt is given by 1 eV = 1 60218 × 10−19 J.
Now consider that a sinusoidal wave is traveling in the positive direction of the x axis with a constant speed s (Fig. 1). In this case, the wave at the position x before the propagation is given by = A sin Kx Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd H. 1 14 Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Here, A is the wave amplitude and K is called the propagation number. 2 Thus, K shows the number of sinusoidal waves present in the distance from 0 to 2 . In general, the propagation number is denoted as k.
2 Conversion of units for light 1 884 × 1011 W 2 998 × 1010 W 1 240 × 10−4 W 108 /W 104 /W Wave number W cm−1 0 159 6 582 × 10−16 1 884 × 1019 / 1 884 × 1015 / 5 309 × 10−12 Angular frequency rad/s 4 136 × 10−15 2 998 × 1018 / 2 998 × 1014 / 3 336 × 10−11 6 283 Frequency Hz 21 Principles of Optics When there is no light absorption in media, the propagation number K can be obtained by inserting Eq. 28) into Eq. 29 Here, is the wavelength of light in vacuum. In particular, when n = 1, it follows that /c = 2 / .