Download e-book for kindle: The Special Functions And Their Approximations by Yudell L. Luke

By Yudell L. Luke

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They may come from the production unit, if management is aware enough to harvest them, or from the providers of finance, who wish to grow their investment. In the development of official statistics on innovation and the use of technologies and practices, questions are added to surveys to identify the sources of ideas for the activity, and the answers illuminate policy discussions about the purpose of government laboratories or the role of research in universities. Little happens without money, and large firms are able to fund new activities from retained earnings or through debt.

However, there is no equivalent to these internationally agreed definitions for knowledge-based industries or products nor agreement on the economic and social surveys required to collect information on their production and use. Measuring knowledge itself is more challenging, if not impossible (Foray and Gault 2003, p. 18). There is no unit of knowledge that corresponds to a currency unit in the SNA, and there is nothing comparable to the concepts of current and constant currency units that supports comparisons of the economic system over time.

Innovation environment remains weak in a number of key ‘‘input’’ indicators. U. innovation system that need to be looked at to explain its problems, to focus on the high-productivity growth areas, and to gain a higher rate of return from its knowledge investments. What Determines a Nation’s Innovation Capacity? What are these factors that determine an economy’s ‘‘national innovation capacity,’’ defined as the ability of a nation not only to produce new ideas but also to commercialize a flow of innovative technologies over the longer term?

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